Thursday, 17 March 2016

R&D consortium strives for ‘advanced diesels’

Ricardo is one of some 16 organisations participating in Project REWARD to develop advanced diesel engines beyond Euro6 for passenger cars and light commercials under 3,500kg, including a new two-stroke diesel for B/C segment cars. 
Among other organisations participating are AVL, Delphi, Fiat, Johnson Matthey, Renault, Schaeffler (which includes Luk, Ina and FAG) and Volvo. 
Delphi, which makes diesel fuel injection equipment, will no doubt embrace its R&D work in the UK and France.
AVL's inclusion also involves its French R&D two- and four-stroke research unit LMM, while Fiat's participation is through CRF – the Central Research Fiat R&D unit in Orbassano, Turin with a staff of 900.
Renault has already developed a small two-stroke diesel engine.
Many OEMs claim already they manufacture ‘advanced’ diesel engines for passenger cars and light commercials (LCVs) but the aim of the Project REWARD is one of developing advanced diesel engines by providing "know-how, intellectual property rights and technical capability to produce cleaner, high efficiency diesel powertrains and after-treatment technology".
The aim is to provide technology for powertrains for A, B, C, D and E-size passenger vehicles and light commercials under 3,500kg beyond Euro6 limits under Real Driving Conditions (EU6 RDE).
Ricardo’s participation in the project is focused upon developing advanced after-treatment technologies, through system simulation, evaluating new catalyst formulations, and simulation and testing of exhaust thermal management strategies.
The aims of Project REWARD are fourfold: To develop and demonstrate advanced exhaust gas treatment concepts, including advanced catalyst formulations; advanced compact Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) technology and advanced exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) strategies of the diesel engine.
Secondly, to develop and demonstrate advanced friction and wear reduction measures including novel high durability, low friction (diamond like carbon) coatings; PVD/PACVD coated components; understanding of the interactions between coating and lubricant; and a mechanically highly efficient engine and demonstration of a 3 per cent fuel saving for one engine concept.
Thirdly, to develop an innovative two-stroke diesel engine architecture for B/C class vehicles using an optimised scavenging process, combustion system and engine operating parameters; and demonstrating fuel savings of 5 per cent compared to state of the art EU6 4-stroke engines for the same class applications.
Finally, to develop and demonstrate advanced four-stroke diesel engines suited for class B, C D and E passenger cars and LCVs by providing improved engines and combustion systems (reduced engine-out emissions); integrating the fully calibrated engines and the after-treatment system into class B/C and D/E demonstration vehicles; and demonstrating a fuel saving of 5% compared to state of the art EU6 4-stroke engines for the same class applications.
The demonstration vehicles, incorporating the developed diesel engine technologies, exhaust gas treatment technologies and friction and wear reduction measures aim to prove, by independent testing, a more than 5 per cent improved fuel economy and compliance with stricter post Euro 6 limits under Real Driving conditions, ≥ 3 dB less noise and at least 50 per cent less particle emissions.
The Euro 6d regulations are due to come into force in Europe from 2017 and will address Real Driving Emissions (RDE) and represent the first emissions legislation which goes beyond the use an explicit fixed test cycle.
Ricardo notes that through the research carried out on the REWARD project, UK company and its partners aim to evaluate and refine new methods for the development of future clean diesel vehicles in addition to developing after-treatment technologies and control strategies. The purpose of this work is to help to ensure that these new innovations can be implemented in a cost-effective and robust manner appropriate to mass production.
The REWARD (REal World Advanced technologies foR Diesel engines) project – is part-funded under the European Union’s Horizon2020 Framework. It appears to make no reference to new materials technology or the development of higher strength/stiffness materials such as compacted graphite iron (CGI).
Andy Ward, head of Ricardo’s engines R&D, noted: “Next generation diesel combustion and after-treatment technologies have a major role to play in the reduction of transport-related CO2 and the particulate and NOX pollutants associated with legacy vehicle fleets. The REWARD consortium brings together the resources of world-leading centres of expertise in addressing the challenges for future clean passenger car and LCV diesel powertrains, and we look forward with our partners on REWARD to facilitating significant steps forward in the technology level of future diesel vehicles, delivering better and cleaner cost-effective performance under the real-world driving conditions demanded of Euro 6d regulations and beyond.”
The programmes should be well under way by now as the kick-off meeting took place last May.

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